Evidence Based Ingredients
We're picky. Like Type A, won't be satisfied until everything is done perfectly. So, when it came to our products, true to form we researched and tested and researched and tested and researched and tested until we knew we had a winning potion.
We're pretty proud that each of the ingredients we've chosen can be thoroughly supported by science. In case you're like us, and love the research, we thought we'd share what we discovered on our journey towards creating Skinny Dipper Skincare and its amazing products. Check below for each ingredient, why it's an excellent choice, and a summary of the science (with references, for you precious nerds).
**DISCLAIMER: These studies suggest the reported beneficial effects for each ingredient; however, we are each unique and with every person's physiology, health history, lifestyle, and environmental burden, no benefits can be guaranteed. Furthermore, as we cannot predict each individual skin reaction, we ALWAYS recommend doing a patch test on a small area of skin with any product purchased from Skinny Dipper.**
It was hard to edit without running off and immediately trying to bath ourselves in these glorious oils!
Apricot Oil (Organic): An easily absorbed oil that is suitable for all skin types (1), especially skin that is sensitive, dry, or mature and can even sooth the itching of dry skin from eczema (anti-pruritic; 1). Excellent for softening skin because of its oleic and linoleic acids and α-tocopherol, which also support immune function (2, 5). Full of carotenoids, Vitamins A (7) and E which are anti-aging (1), apricot oil also contains lots of anti-oxidants that prevent free-radical damage and is anti-inflammatory (6, 8, 9, 10). Apricot oil can further benefit skin with acne (1,4). It has a shelf life of two years (1). Some studies have also suggested it has anti-cancerous properties due to its lycopene content (3).
Beeswax (Organically Managed): A valuable inclusion in the healing and relief of dry, itchy, and cracked skin (11), it forms a protective but breathable barrier to lock in moisture. This wax also has anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties (12). It is effective in promoting wound healing (13) and in improving rosacea (14). This ingredient is in our Lip Dip, Nip Dip, and Deodorants.
Bergamot Essential Oil: This delicious smelling oil has some excellent skincare properties as well as powerful qualities when inhaled (which one is likely to do when it's on your body!). It fights inflammation (15, 141, 27, 1811), is antibacterial (linalool content) and antifungal (15), and has been shown to have some potential anticarcinogenic properties due to its limonene content (16, 19, 20, 130, 21). Bergamot is full of antioxidants with free-radical scavenging activity (25, 1811). This oil is a natural deodorant (1), and works well on greasy, oily, and acneic skin (27). It has antiseptic, antibiotic (27) and wound healing properties (15, 18, 141) and can sooth psoriasis (15, 18, 141). It has been shown to reduce anxiety, chronic stress, and depression (15, 17, 22, 23, 24), and improve memory and mental clarity (1012, 26). It can help with insomnia (1012) by supporting sleep onset (15). This ingredient is in our Deodorant and Facial Oil.
Carrot Seed (Carrier) Oil: This powerhouse oil is rich in antioxidants (70, 71) and is highly valued for being packed with nutrients and rejuvenating qualities for aging skin (1, 27, 69, 72, 73). It’s known to noticeably improve skin tone and elasticity (1, 72), slows down the progression of wrinkles and helps with dry chapped skin (27). It is suitable for all skin types and has a shelf life of 2 years. Fight eczema, inflammation, and oily skin (27). This ingredient is in our Facial Oil.
Cedarwood Essential Oil: Besides smelling like a summer spent at the lake, Cedarwood Essential Oil boasts some pretty serious skin benefits. It is well known in fighting acne, pimples and oily skin (125, 27), dry skin, eczema and dermatitis (27). It has antiseptic properties (27) and is also an anti-inflammatory agent (27, 124, 121). It can be used as a tonic, astringent, diuretic, sedative, insecticide, and antifungal tool (121). Furthermore, its positive attributes don't end with topical application - inhaling it will leave you with many benefits as well as it can be used for anti-anxiolytic purposes (122, 123) and even has some sedative qualities (126) that will also improve sleep (127, 128) and mental calm / focus (129). Makes sense when you consider it smells like a woodsy vacation! This ingredient is in our Deodorant and Facial Oil.
Coconut Oil (Organic): An oil that is also commonly used in cooking. It is one of the most easily absorbed (28) and is wonderfully moisturizing. It is rich with antioxidants and is therefore slow to oxidize (1, 35). It has antifungal (21, 36), antimicrobial (33, 34), anti-inflammatory (35), anti-viral (36) and wound healing (37) qualities. Suitable for most skin types, especially that of dry cracked skin (38), and that of eczema (27, 38). Some studies suggest that it may even have UV radiation protective qualities (40). This ingredient is in our Lip Dip, Nip Dip, and Deodorants.
Geranium Essential Oil: This oil boasts some pretty powerful properties and was a must when we were considering what we wanted to include in our facial oil. Geranium oil has many topical benefits, but it further helps via inhalation as well. Packed full of antioxidants, this oil prevents and reduces oxidative stress in skin (102, 107), and is a well-known anti-inflammatory agent (109, 110, 141, 27). In fact this oil contains some of the highest levels of anti-oxidants (107, 1013), and is excellent for slowing signs of aging (102, 1010, 27), fighting rosacea, psoriasis, and eczema (1010, 27), and healing dry skin (27, 1015). On top of that, this oil fights acne, and helps balance oily, congested skin (27, 1015), and may even have an SPF of its own (102). It is anti-cancerous (101), antifungal (103, 108, 172), and promotes wound healing (105, 106, 141, 27). Finally, when inhaled, this oil helps to fight anxiety, stress, and fatigue (1012). This ingredient is in our Facial Oil.
Grapefruit Essential Oil: This juicy citrus oil is super special and can work wonders for your skin. Its high limonene content makes it an excellent tool against acne (88, 74, 29). It also cleanses and tones skin, and even balances out your complexion (27). That's why it was our main EO for our cleanser. It removes toxins while cleansing and encourages the expulsion of excess fluids (1705). It has one of the highest level of antioxidants and demonstrates high levels of free-radical scavenging acitivity (86). It is antimicrobial, antifungal (1701, 1702, 1708), and even has antiseptic properties (27). It also can have a visible impact on scars and stretch marks (27). It is even suggested that inhaling grapefruit EO will increase thermogenesis and lipolysis (which reduces fat all over the body, though we will never promise your face oil will make you lose a bunch of weight! 1703) along with suppression of appetite and weight gain (1800, 1704). It may also be thought to be anti-carcinogenic in some certain kinds of cancer (1701, 1706, 1707). This ingredient is in our Deodorant, Facial Oil and Oil Cleanser.
Hemp Seed Oil (Organic): This juicy oil was included primarily because it is high in Linoleic Acid content (54) which helps repair the skin barrier and reduce TEWL (moisture loss; 54, 58) leaving skin deeply hydrated (67). Some studies even suggest that this key fatty acid plays a role in treating various skin conditions including psoriasis, acne, dermatitis (57, 66, 67, 68) and fighting inflammation (56, 59). Linoleic Acid has also been shown to help with UVB- caused hyperpigmentation (60, 61, 65). Hemp oil also helps fight and prevent wrinkles and signs of aging, and fights acne-causing bacteria (55). It has positive effects on wound healing (62) and may have a potential role in inhibiting skin cancer (63), specifically melanoma (57, 66, 67, 68) and offering photoprotective characteristics (64). This ingredient is in our Facial Oil.
Jojoba Wax (Organic): This oil is technically a wax, and pronounced “ho-ho-ba”. It is lightweight, easily absorbed, anti-inflammatory (41, 42), and can help in the prevention and reduction of acne vulgaris (40, 41). It is very similar to our own sebum and has anti-aging and wound healing properties (42, 43). In synergy with essential oils, it will increase antimicrobial properties (44) and is helping in the management of skin infections (45). This ingredient is in our Facial Oil and Oil Cleanser.
Lavender Essential Oil: This well studied Essential Oil is one of the most recommended for a reason. Not only is it considered one of the safest essential oils (1603) it exhibits great results for skin and even mood and sleep. It fights acne (27) and has antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antifungal properties (143, 151, 172, 1012). Lavender EO also (no surprise) calms the skin and reduces inflammation (1602). It has free-radical scavenging activity (152) because of its high antioxidant content, which also reduces oxidative stress in the brain (142) when inhaled. Breathing it in also aids in sleep and is markedly calming (1012, 1600), reduces anxiety (1601) as well as improves feelings of wellbeing and mental alertness (1012). Cha-ching! This ingredient is in our Facial Oil.
Olive Oil (Organic): Ancient cultures have used this oil for centuries as both food, and cosmetic ingredient. This common food ingredient has benefits beyond the kitchen! A highly calming (28) and skin softening oil that contains large amounts of vitamins and minerals (28). It is a very rich oil, well suited to dry and normal skin types, as it can relieve dry itchy skin with its ability to penetrate deeply (29). It is full of antioxidants – higher levels than vitamin E (28). This oil is anti-inflammatory (30), and promotes wound healing and cell regeneration (31). It has been suggested that this oil may reduce the effects of UVB radiation and prevent the onset of skin cancer (32). This ingredient is in our Lip Dip, Nip Dip, and Deodorants.
Patchouli Essential Oil: Patchouli essential oil has been widely used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine for hundreds of years and it's no wonder. This amazing oil is an excellent tool in skincare because of its extremely high levels of antioxidants (115, 119, 1114), its ability to reduce signs of photoaging caused by UV exposure (115, 116), skin cell regenerative properties (1113), its power to invigorate fatigued and mature skin (113, 114), and its ability to reduce the appearance of scars (1113). This EO is also excellent at reducing inflammation and calming the skin (111, 113, 117, 1113, 1014). Patchouli oil is very useful in fighting acne because of its antimicrobial and astringent qualities (112, 113, 1110, 1113, 27), treating dry skin, dermatitis and eczema (113, 1113, 27) and clearing oily skin (113, 117, 1113, 27). Further, this oil is antibacterial (118, 1111, 172), antifungal (103, 113, 1111, 117), antiviral (117), beneficial in speeding up wound healing (1113), and may even have tumour fighting properties (1112). Finally, the aromatherapeutic effects include reducing stress (113), depression, tension, and anxiety (1113). This ingredient is in our Deodorant and Facial Oil.
Peppermint Essential Oil (Organic): This EO is generally considered safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding, so we've included it primarily as a refreshing taste and aroma to our Lip Dip. It does, however, also offer a wide variety of benefits. Peppermint EO has “significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential” (91). It is a well studied anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and astringent oil (1012). Peppermint EO also fights acne (27). It is topically antibacterial and offers a variety of aromatherapy benefits (beneficial as it will be right under your nose) including: digestive-aid, easing nausea, reducing fatigue and headaches, and increases mental clarity and stimulation (92). This ingredient is in our Lip Dip.
Rosemary Essential Oil: Not an essential oil that is well-known, but it should be! It has fantastic skin and health benefits. This EO makes an excellent skin tonic (1012) and is full of anti-oxidants (161,162) with free-radical scavenging activity (1012, 152, 153,154). It is acne-fighting and sebum-balancing (27, 90, 89), and also soothes dermatitis, eczema, rosacea (27) along with its anti-inflammatory properties (154). When inhaled, it is neuroprotective (104), improves cognitive function (1012), and reduces anxiety (1804). This ingredient is in our Oil Cleanser.
Sunflower Oil (Organic): This light oil is high in vitamin E and creates a breathable but protective barrier for skin due to high linoleic acid content (51, 58, 59, 67), which is also essential for fighting acne, dermatitis, and other inflammatory skin complaints (67, 68). It is highly moisturizing and soothing to those with dry skin (52, 67), has anti-inflammatory properties (52, 59), and contains antioxidants (53). Some studies even suggest it may have chemo-preventative properties (53). This ingredient is in our Facial Oil and Oil Cleanser.
Sweet Orange Essential Oil: This DELISH essential is just that - essential! It is amazing on the skin topically and on the mind when inhaled. Helps with acne (1812), blocked pores, congested and oily skin (27). It balances sebum production (27), revives dull complexions, and wrinkles (27), and is an antiseptic (27). It has high free radical scavenging activity by its antioxidants (1809). Because of its D-limonene content (1810, 1811, 1819) it is antibacterial (1813, 1814, 1815), antifungal (1816, 1817, 1818), and fights mold toxins (1819). Some studies even have shown that is has exhibited anticarcinogenic properties (1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1808). When inhaled for 90 seconds, it increases feelings of comfort, relaxation, and ease (1804), decreases anxiety, increases mood (1805, 1806, 1807, 1820), and fights insomnia (1012). This ingredient is in our Oil Cleanser.
1) Purchon, N., Cantele, L. The Complete Aromatherapy & Essential Oils Handbook For Everyday Wellness. Robert Rose, 2014.
9) Xinguang Fan, Wenxiao Jiao, Xiaomei Wang, Jiankang Cao, Weibo Jiang. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of apricot fruits of various varieties and maturity stages at harvest. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 2018, 53 (2) , 327-336. DOI: 10.1111/ijfs.13589.
10)K. Shemesh, , M. Zohar, , I. Bar-Ya’akov, , K. Hatib, , D. Holland, , T. Isaacson, . Analysis of carotenoids in fruit of different apricot accessions reveals large variability and highlights apricot as a rich source of phytoene and phytofluene. Fruits 2017, 72 (4) , 185-202. DOI: 10.17660/th2017/72.4.1.
13) Bayir Y., Un H., Ugan RA., Akpinar E., Cadirci E., Calik I., Halici Z. The effects of Beeswax, Olive oil and Butter impregnated bandage on burn wound healing. Burns. 2019 May 21. pii: S0305-4179(18)30167-0. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2018.03.004
18)Cosentino M., Luini A., Bombelli R., Corasaniti M.T., Bagetta G., Marino F. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phyther. Res. 2014;28:1232–1239. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5121. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
19)Navarra M., Ferlazzo N., Cirmi S., Trapasso E., Bramanti P., Lombardo G.E., Minciullo P.L., Calapai G., Gangemi S. Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2015;67:1042–1053. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12403. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
20) Berliocchi L., Ciociaro A., Russo R., Cassiano M.G.V., Blandini F., Rotiroti D., Morrone L.A., Corasaniti M.T. Toxic profile of bergamot essential oil on survival and proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2011;49:2780–2792. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.08.017. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar][Ref list]
21)Celia C., Trapasso E., Locatelli M., Navarra M., Ventura C.A., Wolfram J., Carafa M., Morittu V.M., Britti D., Di Marzio L., et al. Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces. 2013;112:548–553. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.09.017. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
22)Saiyudthong S., Mekseepralard C. Effect of Inhaling bergamot oil on depression-related behaviors in chronic stressed rats. J. Med. Assoc. Thail. 2015;98:S152–S159. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
23) Saiyudthong S., Marsden C.A. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats. Phyther. Res. 2011;25:858–862. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3325. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
24) an X., Gibson J., Eggett D.L., Parker T.L. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oil inhalation improves positive feelings in the waiting room of a mental health treatment center: A pilot study. Phyther. Res. 2017;31:812–816. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5806.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
25)Tundis R., Loizzo M.R., Bonesi M., Menichini F., Mastellone V., Colica C., Menichini F. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifoliaSwingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils. J. Food Sci. 2012;77:H40–H46. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02511.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
30) Nasopoulou C., Karantonis H.C., Detopoulou M., Demopoulos C.A., Zabetakis I. Exploiting the anti-inflammatory properties of olive (Olea europaea) in the sustainable production of functional food and neutraceuticals. Phytochem. Rev. 2014;13:445–458. doi: 10.1007/s11101-014-9350-8.
31) Donato-Trancoso A., Monte-Alto-Costa A., Romana-Souza B. Olive oil-induced reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation promotes wound healing of pressure ulcers in mice. J. Dermatol. Sci. 2016;83:60–69. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2016.03.012.
33) http://www.jisppd.com/article.asp?issn=0970-4388;year=2011;volume=29;issue=2;spage=90;epage=94;aulast=Asokan / https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16010969 / https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Josiah_Onaolapo/publication/285568592_Formulation_and_Antimicrobial_Studies_of_Coconut_Cocos_nucifera_Linne_Oil/links/5757182008ae04a1b6b68dad.pdf
44) Orchard, A., Kamatou, G., Viljoen, A.M., Patel, N., Mawela, P., van Vuuren, S.F. The Influence of Carrier Oils on the Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oils. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Jan 14;2019:6981305. doi: 10.1155/2019/6981305. eCollection 2019.
60)Shigeta Y., Imanaka H., Ando H., Ryu A., Oku N., Baba N., Makino T. Skin whitening effect of linoleic acid is enhanced by liposomal formulations. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004;27:591–594. doi: 10.1248/bpb.27.591. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
61)Ando H., Ryu A., Hashimoto A., Oka M., Ichihashi M. Linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid lightens ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 1998;290:375–381. doi: 10.1007/s004030050320. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
68)ChiCTR‐IOR‐15007139. Effect andEfficacy of a Linoleic Acid‐Ceramide Containing Moisturizer in atopic dermatitis [Effect and Efficacy of a Linoleic Acid‐Ceramide Containing Moisturizer as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis:A Randomized Controlled Trial]. apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=ChiCTR‐IOR‐15007139 Date first received: 31 August 2015. [Ref list]
92) Purchon, N., Cantele, L. The Complete Aromatherapy & Essential Oils Handbook For Everyday Wellness. Page 95-96. Robert Rose, 2014.
113)Julia Lawless, The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Updated Edition) (London: Harper Thorsons, 2014), 160-161.
114)Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 382.
128)Yamamoto Y., Shirakawa S., Nagashima Y., Ohsu H., Tojo S., Suzuki T. The effects of cedrol on sleep. Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology. 2003;8(2):25–29.
1601) Braden, R., Reichow, S., and Halm, M. A. The use of the essential oil lavandin to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical patients. J Perianesth.Nurs. 2009;24(6):348-355. View abstract.
1706) Zu Y., Yu H., Liang L., Fu Y., Efferth T., Liu X., Wu N. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Molecules. 2010;15:3200–3210. doi: 10.3390/molecules15053200. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
1707)Hata T., Sakaguchi I., Mori M., Ikeda N., Kato Y., Minamino M., Watabe K. Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells. In Vivo. 2003;17:553–559.[PubMed] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
1708)Okunowo W.O., Oyedeji O., Afolabi L.O., Matanmi E. Essential oil of grape fruit (Citrus paradisi) peels and its antimicrobial activities. Am. J. Plant Sci. 2013;4:1–9. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.47A2001. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
1813) Bourgou S., Zohra F., Ourghemmi I., Saidani M. Changes of peel essential oil composition of four Tunisian citrus during fruit maturation. Sci. World J. 2012;2012:528593. doi: 10.1100/2012/528593.
1815)Settani L., Palazzolo E., Guarrasi V., Aleo A., Mammina C., Moschetti G., Germaná M. Inhibition of foodborne pathogen bacteria by essential oils extracted from citrus fruits cultivated in Sicily. Food Control. 2012;26:326–330. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.01.050.
1816)iuda-Martos M., Ruiz-Navajas Y., Fernández-López J., Perez-Álvarez J. Antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus limon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils. Food Control. 2008;19:1130–1138. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.12.003.
1817)Singh P., Shukla R., Prakash B., Kumar A., Singh S., Mishra P.K., Dubey N.K. Chemical profile, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima Burm. and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their cyclic monoterpene, dl-limonene. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2010;48:1734–1740. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.04.001.
1818)Sharma N., Tripathi A. Effects of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck epicarp essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger (L.) Van Tieghem. Microbiol. Res. 2008;163:337–344. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2006.06.009.